Heat Pumps

We offer heat pump design & layout.  With a power factor of 1:3 to 1:4 heat pumps use electric energy to make heat for a building.  With power factors of 1:3 to 1:4, they can make 3 to 4 times as much heat energy as they use electric energy.  It makes a lot of sense if the electricity is provided by a renewable energy source such as wind, solar, hydro, etc. Groundwater Heat Pump (GWHP) or open-loop systems are the oldest and most well established of the ground- source heat pump systems. They are simple in nature, however these systems require careful consideration of well design, groundwater flow, heat exchanger selection and disposal in order that an efficient and reliable system results. Open Loop System Options: 1.  The direct use of the groundwater in the heat pump units is largely an extension of residential design and is sometimes used in very small commercial applications. It is very susceptible to water quality induced problems, the most common of which is scaling of the refrigerant-to-water heat exchangers.  This design is recommended in only the smallest applications in which practicality or economics precludes the use of an isolation heat exchanger and/or groundwater quality is excellent (the determination of which requires extensive testing).  The standing column system has been installed in many locations in the northeast portion of the U.S. Like the direct groundwater system, it too is subject to water quality induced problems.  In general, water quality in the area where most of the installations have been made (New England) is extremely good with low pH and hardness (little scaling potential).  Standing column systems are used in locations underlain by hard rock geology; where, wells do not produce sufficient water for conventional open loop systems and where water quality is excellent.  Depths of wells are  1000 to 1500 ft and the systems operate at temperatures between those of open and closed loop systems.  In colder climates, this sometimes precludes the use of a heat exchanger to isolate the groundwater. 2. Indirect open loop systems employ a heat exchanger between the building loop and the ground water.  This eliminates exposure of any building components to the ground water and allows the building loop and ground water loops to be operated at different flows for optimum system performance.  Water can be disposed of in an injection well or to a surface body if one is available. These systems offer energy efficiency comparable to closed loop systems at substantially reduced capital cost. Due to the elimination of water quality and geology limitations this system type is the most widely applicable of the three. Open loop system design is one in which the performance of the system is optimized based on the power requirements of the well pump, loop pump and heat pumps. In a system of this configuration, it is apparent that the greater the ground water flow, the more favorable will be the temperatures at which the heat pumps will operate. As the ground water flow is increased, the improvement in heat pump performance is increasingly compromised by rising well pump power. At some point, increasing well pump power overshadows the improvement in heat pump performance and the total system performance begins to decline.  The task in open loop design is to gather enough information about the well pump, loop pump and heat pumps to permit the identification of these trends and to select the optimum system performance point. One has to elevate the well pump power required to produce a range of groundwater flows and combine that with the heat pump performance at those same groundwater flows. The optimum relationship between pumping power and heat pump performance is established at the design condition and system performance at off peak conditions is maintained by accurate well pump control.